Geoengineering là gì

Solar radiation management (SRM or solar geoengineering) is a theoretical approach to reducing some of the impacts of climate change by reflecting a small amount of inbound sunlight bachồng out inkhổng lồ space. It is in the early stages of retìm kiếm, but it is already a controversial topic. It is clear that SRM has the potential to be very helpful or very damaging for those people và species most threatened by climate change, but it is very unclear what its full effects would be.Quý Khách sẽ xem: Geoengineering là gì

SRM would not directly reduce concentrations greenhouse gases, & therefore numerous expert reports have concluded that it could never be a complete solution lớn global warming & does not represent a substitute for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. However, they have also concluded that it might be able to reduce some climate risks to lớn which Earth is already committed, though even for this more limited purpose whether it can be net positive to humanity và the environment is unclear.

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For instance, if it could be made to work, SRM would be the only known method for quickly stopping the rise in global temperatures. It could even be used to lớn cool the planet, should that ever be deemed necessary. As such it might be able to reduce some damages while humanity decarbonizes the global economy, or it might offer a method for dealing with some of the climate risks associated with those greenhouse gases that have already been emitted to lớn the atmosphere. The uncertainties around the effects of SRM are large though, và there is not nearly enough evidence yet available khổng lồ evaluate whether use of SRM would increase or decrease the impacts of climate change, và where.

What would SRM involve?

Different SRM techniques have sầu been proposed, but the proposals receiving the most attention from researchers would involve sầu brightening marine clouds by spraying seawater into lớn the lower atmosphere, or replicating the cooling effect of volcanoes by spraying reflective sulfate particles into lớn the upper atmosphere (the stratosphere).

Marine cloud brighteningLarge areas of ocean are covered in marine stratus clouds. Scientists have sầu proposed that spraying tiny droplets of seawater inlớn these clouds could make them lighter và more reflective sầu. Whiter, brighter clouds reflect more sunlight back out into lớn space, and would help cool the planet.

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What about side effects?

It is not yet known what all the side effects of SRM could be, or whether they would be very damaging. Some possible side effects are known, however. For instance, stratospheric aerosols might delay the regeneration of the ozone layer. There might also be some health effects from the additional aerosols in the atmosphere, although these are not currently expected to lớn be large.


What about the societal & political dimensions?

The physical impacts of SRM are only one part of the story. Many people feel that the political dimensions could prove more difficult khổng lồ manage than the physical dimensions. For instance, what would happen if a country used SRM unilaterally, and then other countries experienced extreme weather events that might have been caused by the geoengineering? How would the world achieve sầu widespread international agreement over how much SRM cooling khổng lồ do? Some countries might want the world a degree or two warmer, and some might want it a degree or two cooler. Also, there are concerns that the idea of SRM could distract politicians from the task of implementing deep cuts lớn greenhouse gas emissions.

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SRM research & governance questions

But retìm kiếm itself is controversial & it raises numerous questions:

Who decides if retìm kiếm proceeds, & what should be researched?Who pays for the research? Who benefits?What ensures that retìm kiếm is conducted in a transparent manner, và that all results are shared openly?How can the different research priorities of different groups be heard?What can be done khổng lồ make sure that SRM retìm kiếm does not distract public và politicians from the task of cutting emissions of greenhouse gases?

These questions can shape the way that SRM develops, but there are no clear answers. A broad global conversation about SRM & the governance of related retìm kiếm is therefore required.

“I would like to have a reverse button for whatever is put in the stratosphere.“

Chuyên mục: Kiến thức